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The following trainings have been approved through the "Course Accreditation Program (CAP") of the NASW-Virginia Chapter or the NASW-Metro DC Chapter for Continuing Education Hours. Please contact the sponsoring organization using the Contact information if you are interested in any of these trainings.

Standing in the Spaces between Loewald and Bromberg: Comparison and Extension of Thoughts on Mental Functioning and Therapeutic Action

In 1988, Arnold Cooper compared Strachey’s 1934 paper on the Nature of Therapeutic Action with Loewald’s 1960 paper on the same subject. The latter was 28 years old at the time, but Cooper was noting that a quiet revolution had taken place, marking a substantial shift in how mainstream psychoanalysis conceptualizes how our treatment works. As Dr. Rayner wrote this, Bromberg’s Standing in the Spaces is 28 years old. It is his impression that this paper, and much of the work that came before and after it, is equally seismic in its implications. In this paper, Dr. Rayner attempts to capture what he saw as the “Loewald Treatment” that he applied to a number of time-honored meta-psychological concepts, mostly originating from Freud. He saw processes originally described as moving in one direction as being flexibly bidirectional under ideal circumstances. He saw relationships originally described as adversarial as having an underappreciated positive quality, and vice versa. The upshot of all of this is seen in his papers on therapeutic action, which demonstrate that growth in patients, and in people, occurs in dialectic tension centered on relationships, especially the analytic relationship. Bromberg introduces an important concept pertaining to psychic structure that is scarcely acknowledged by Loewald, and that is the existence of multiple discontinuous self-states and the use of dissociation in all individuals. While pathological dissociation involves the rigid, protective separation of self-states in response to trauma, in health, individuals are able to “stand in the spaces” between self-states, accessing them and shifting seamlessly and unconsciously as relational contexts change. The implications for clinical process are profound. The analyst must establish relationships of recognition with each of the patient’s different self-states, which inevitably mobilizes dissociated self-states. Thus, Bromberg extends the shift toward appreciating and elucidating the role of the analytic relationship in therapeutic change and growth. Dr. Rayner also applied the “Loewald Treatment” to Bromberg, further extending his contributions to understanding psychological functioning in sickness, health, and treatment.

Date: January 20, 2023 

Location: Live virtual 

CE Hours: 2

Sponsor: Virginia Psychoanalytic Society

Contact/Registration Information: or 804-840-3592

Trauma & Resilience Training Series

This 3- part workshop series will provide participants with a foundational knowledge around the topics of trauma and resilience as well as provide strategies that participants can use in their work with clients who have experienced trauma and adversity.


Jan. 25, 2023: Introduction to Trauma & Trauma-Informed Care: This training provides a foundational learning experience around the topics of trauma and trauma-informed care. We will define trauma, discuss the many types of trauma/adversity, explore the impact of trauma on the brain and behavior, introduce resilience, and discuss AMHSA’s 4 Rs of trauma-informed care. Throughout the presentation, we will share useful tools and techniques.

Feb. 22, 2023: Overcoming Adversity & Building Resilience: This training will provide a brief review of trauma and its impacts as well as introduce the Cs of building resilience. Participants will learn about adverse and positive childhood experiences as well as strategies for building individual and community resilience.

March 22, 2023: Trauma-Informed Strategies: This training will provide a brief review of trauma and its impacts as well as introduce the 6 Principles of a Trauma-Informed Approach. Using these principals, participants will learn strategies for creating physical & psychological safety, developing collaborative & supportive relationships, empowering others through voice & choice, and addressing systems of oppression.

Date(s): January 25, February 22, and March 22, 2023

Location: Live virtual 

CE Hours: 6 total (2 CE hours per session)

Sponsor: Great Richmond SCAN

Contact/Registration Information:


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